Yogeśvara Śrī Kṛșṇa (Yogeshvar Shri Krishna)

 Maharși Dayānanda was the first to give a clarion call for Indian independence in the modern era and he spelt out the roadmap for a new resurgent India. He said this about Yogeśvara Śrī Kșa, “Look! Śrī Kșa had an admirable history in the epic of Mahā-Bhārata. His virtues, activities, temperament and character were of the highest order. It doesn’t depict even a single act contrary to Dharma that he might have committed.”[1]

 Śrī Kșa was a proficient Yogi, a politician par excellence, shrewd diplomat, brave, theist, tolerant, with lofty character, true friend, void of greed, courageous, with in-depth knowledge of the Vedas, and protector of the Vedic culture. Described herein is the character of Śrī Kșa as appearing in the historical epic of Mahā-Bhārata. His character has been distorted in the books of Purāṇa. Purāṇas describe him as one who stole milk, curd and butter and who was void of character, passionate, and who flirted. This is derogatory to a great personality.

Readers are requested to apply their own discretion in concluding the character of the one who delivered the discourse of Gītā and who together with his wife Rukmiṇī maintained celibacy for 12 years after their wedding in order to beget their son. He killed the autocratic kings Kaṁsa, Jarāsandha and Śiśupāla but coroneted their own relatives. How is it ever possible for such a great ascetic and Yogi to commit acts of gratification with women, including those married to others? The answer is unequivocal Certainly Not. In this context Maharșī Dayānanda has aptly written, “… the author of Bhāgavata (Purāṇa) has attributed a number of baseless sinful acts to him such as stealing of milk, curd, butter, etc. Physical relationship with a maid, flirting with a large number of women, etc. are also included in the list. Those who subscribe to other cultures they read and teach such stories as well as hear and recite the same to bring him to disrepute. If there were no such books as Bhāgavata then the great souls such Yogeśvara Śrī Kșa  wouldn’t  have been in disrepute.”[2]


He was born more than 5000 years ago, in the lineage of Yadu. His father was Vasudeva and mother’s name was Devakī. Mahā-Bhārata doesn’t shed much light on his birth and childhood. Purāṇas have described his childhood full with miracles and other fictitious stories. He was educated in gurukuls (a preceptor’s residential school), the classical centers of education. He studied all the four Vedas and the books of philosophy along with the treatises on military science and political sciences. Sāndīpani was his teacher. Chāndogya Upanișad (3.17.6) describes Kṛșṇa as son of Devakī who obtained his education from Ṛși Ghora, son of Aṅgiras, though this hasn’t been stated in Mahā-Bhārata. During his studies, it emerged that he was brilliant and brave. Once one ox named Arișți went berserk and lad to people’s stampede then Kṛșṇa took away his life. Similarly, one horse named Keśī in a forest had become the source of terror that everybody feared from venturing into the forest. Kṛșṇa killed that horse.

While studying, Kṛșṇa had made up his mind to kill his maternal uncle Kaṁsa because of his cruelties. Kaṁsa somehow came to know of Kṛșṇa’s intentions. He intended to kill Kṛșṇa through his spies but that didn’t materialize. Whoever went to him as an emissary of Kaṁsa, Kṛșṇa was able to vanish him permanently. With no other recourse, Kaṁsa thought of a covert act to kill Kṛșṇa. He organized a Dhanușa (Bow)-Yajña and invited the two brothers Kṛșṇa and Balrāma. Kṛșṇa was able to break up the particular bow. Along with, Kaṁsa had organized a wrestling competition. As soon as Kṛșṇa was to enter into the specially erected pavilion, an elephant was let loose who was berserk. Kṛșṇa was able to kill him too. The royalty of Kaṁsa included two wrestlers named Cānūra and Mușțika. Kaṁsa ordered them to finish off both the brothers, i.e. Kṛșṇa and Balrāma. Now Kṛșṇa and Balrāma reached the wrestling ground. Cānūra was to face Kṛșṇa and Balrāma was with Mușțika. Both the brothers soon realized the ill-intentions of their opponents and they killed them. All this angered Kaṁsa greatly. Then Kṛșṇa jumped towards Kaṁsa. Krishna caught hold of his hair and then threw him on the ground with such a force that Kaṁsa died instantly.

Residents of Mathurā had greatly suffered on account of the atrocities of Kaṁsa. They began to hail Kṛșṇa and requested him to occupy the king’s seat. But he declined their request and let free the father of Kaṁsa (i.e. his maternal grandfather) Ugrasena who was in prison and coroneted him. This was a great act of sacrifice. Thus, he revived the near-collapse of the republic of the Yadu lineage.

Kaṁsa had two wives – Asti and Prāpti. Their father was Jarāsandha, the brave king of Magadha. Both the wives of Kaṁsa requested Kṛșṇa to be allowed to reach their father and Kṛșṇa arranged their travel in a dignified manner. Seeing his daughters crying, Jarāsandha was angry and attacked Mathurā with a large force. The army of Yādavas in the leadership of Kṛșṇa repulsed the attack. Jarāsandha again attacked and was repulsed. He attacked Mathurā 17 times and every time returned defeated. On the eighteenth occasion, he colluded with a foreigner named Kālayavana and encircled Mathurā.  Kṛșṇa adopted a trick and came out of his fort as a decorated soldier so as to attract the attention of Kālayavana. Kālayavana then began to chase Kṛșṇa alone. Śrī Kṛșṇa entered into a cave where a brave soldier was taking rest. Kṛșṇa covered that soldier with his own clothes and kept himself hiding in the cave. When Kālayavana entered into the cave then thinking that the person who was lying on the floor was Kșa., he hit the latter with his feet. Then that soldier woke up and both began to fight leading to the death of Kālayavana.  Śrī Kṛșṇa returned to Mathurā but decided to leave Mathurā because the enemy’s forces were too large. Balarāma and Kșa escaped from Mathurā and went to the western coast of Dvārikā where they began to develop their army.

Wedding of Śrī Kșa and Rukmiṇī

In Dwārikā, he got married to Rukmiṇi, daughter of Vidarbha’s king Bhișmaka. After wedding, the couple decided to lead a life of celibacy for twelve years and do penance (Tapasyā) in Himālayan range. Thereafter, they were blessed with a son named Pradyumna. This account has been mentioned by Sage Vyāsa in his great epic Mahābhārata. Actually, according to him, Śrī Kṛșṇa had narrated the following in his own words: “After the ascetic life of twelve years in the Himālayas with my wife Rukmiṇī , we were rewarded with the birth of our son Pradyumna and it seems as if Sanat Kumāra was reborn”. In the evening before the start of Mahābhārata war, when Aśvathāmā asked for the Divine Sudarśana Cakra from, Śrī Kṛșṇa he told him that even my own son never asked for my divine Cakra (a hand-held weapon with remote capability) so how can I give it to you?” [3] In so many ways, Pradyumna was much like Śrī Kṛșṇa. The above reference clearly indicates that Śrī Kṛșṇa was a righteous person with proficiency in Yoga. How could it be possible that a Yogi, ascetic, righteous person of this stature would run after women? Therefore, it is prudent on part of intelligent readers to refer to Mahā-Bhārata only as a legitimate reference to learn about Śrī Kṛșṇa and not the Purāṇas such as Bhāgavata. It is a sin to blame Śrī Kṛșṇa for sinful acts and even to hear such baseless stories. [4]

Relationship between Śrī Kșa and Pāṇḍavas

Pāṇḍavas mother Kuntī was’s Kṛșṇa aunt (father’s sister). When the wedlock related competition was organized for Draupadī then Arjuna appeared there as a Brahman and successfully emerged victorious. Then there was much connotation among the Kshatriyas present there and they wondered that how a poor Brahman can win over Draupadī in their presence. They became ready for a battle and Pāṇḍavas were ready too. First Karṇa came forward to fight with Arjuna and was defeated. Śrī Kṛșṇa was present there too and he immediately figured it that these are Pāṇḍavas who adopted the appearance of Brāhmaṇas on that occasion Śrī Kṛșṇa came forward and was able to bring peace there.

When Yudhișțhira thought of Rājasūya-Yajña then Kṛșṇa advised him that it would be a meaningless exercise until Jarāsandha was defeated. After consulting with Śrī Kṛșṇa he planned a bilateral war with Jarāsandha to kill him. Bhīma, Arjuna and Śrī Kṛșṇa reached Magadha and then the venue and time for the war was decided. The fight between Bhīma and Jarāsandha lasted 13 days. On the fourteenth day, Jarāsandha was too tired and when Śrī Kṛșṇa signaled, then Bhīma utilized the occasion to bisect Jarāsandha’s body from the thighs after holding his legs and pulling them apart. After Jarāsandha’s death, Śrī Kṛșṇa coroneted his son Sahadeva. Jarāsandha had imprisoned 86 kings. Śrī Kṛșṇa got them released and invited them for the Rājasūya-Yajña on behalf of Yudhișțhira which they gladly accepted. At the time of Rājasūya-Yajña everybody was allotted tasks based on merits. Śrī Kṛșṇa volunteered and requested that he be given the task to welcome all the invitees in a humble manner. This was his humility. At the beginning of Rājasūya-Yajña, Yudhișțhira inquired from Bhīșma that among all the invitees who was the most qualified out of the warriors and learned scholars present who should sip the symbolic water.

Bhīșma said, “Among the scholars of the Vedas and the allied literature and brave warriors, there is nobody superior to Śrī Kṛșṇa in the entire humanity. Śrī Kṛșṇa possesses virtues such as philanthropy, efficiency, knowledge of the scriptures, cavalry, modesty, fame, brilliant intellect, humility, subtle prosperity, patience, contentment and strength to the highest scale. As the sun is brighter than all the stars, such is true with Śrī Kṛșṇa among all the kings.”[5] Then Śrī Kṛșṇa was offered the symbolic sip of water as the Most Respectable person among the galaxy of the kings present there. Seeing Śrī Kṛșṇa honored thus, Śișupāla became envious and began to utter foul words against Śrī Kṛșṇa. Yudhișțhira attempted to persuade him but he didn’t heed the wise advice. Eventually, Śrī Kṛșṇa beheaded him in the assembly using his legendary weapon Sudarśana Cakra.

In the following celebrations, Duryodhana took envious route because he couldn’t see the respect that came to Yudhișțhira. He then devised a conspiracy to defeat him in gambling with help from his maternal uncle Śakuni. Draupadī was insulted in the assembly. Duśāsana attempted to disrobe her. When this was happening then Śrī Kṛșṇa was away for a battle with Śālva. When the Pāṇḍavas’ exile in the forests ended then Śrī Kṛșṇa met them in a particular forest called Dvaita-Vana. At that time, Śrī Kṛșṇa had said that had he been in Dvārikā at the time of gambling then he would have reached Pāṇḍavas on his own accord without any invitation and persuaded Yudhișțhira not to gamble with Duryodhana. Thus, it is very clear that Śrī Kṛșṇa was not present when Draupadī was being disrobed and therefore, how could it happen that he did a miracle in this regard. Thus, the truth is that Draupadī was merely threatened by Duśāsana as if the later would disrobe her. It is logical to believe that  she was never disrobed.

Diplomatic Skills of Śrī Kșa

After the Pāṇḍavas exile in forests ended, Śrī Kṛșṇa made many attempts to avoid war. He appeared before Duryodhana as Pāṇḍavas emissary. First, he stopped by at Vidura’s home and had a meal with him and then reached Duryodhana’s palace. When Duryodhana inquired about extending hospitality with food then Śrī Kṛșṇa said, “To eat at someone’s home is possible in two occasions, either out of love or in distress. O King! You don’t seem to have love for me and I am not in any distress.”[6] Next day he appeared in the royal assembly and delivered a noteworthy lecture before presenting a proposal of friendship. He said to Duryodhana, “Pāṇḍavas intend to declare you the Crown Prince and will accept your father Dhṛtarāșțra as the Emperor. The wealth and prosperity coming to you shouldn’t be insulted. Give half of the kingdom to the Pāṇḍavas.” Then Bhīșma, Vidurs, Droṇa, etc. advised Duryodhana on the same lines but he didn’t accept the proposal and said, “Hey Kṛșṇa! I am not willing to give even the smallest piece of land equivalent of the needle head.”[7] Then Śrī Kṛșṇa warned Duryodhana that his end was imminent. Duryodhana attempted to imprison Śrī Kṛșṇa at this stage but the latter bravely walked out of the assembly.

Śrī Kșa: The Immortal Singer of Giītā

Mahabharata war became inevitable once the proposal of friendship made by Sri Krsna on behalf of Pandavas was turned down. In the battlefield, at the inception of war, both the armies were facing each other. Śrī Kṛșṇa was the charioteer for Arjun. Arjun asked Śrī Kṛșṇa to move to such a location so that he could have a better view the opponent army.  Śrī Kṛșṇa drove the chariot to such a suitable location. Arjun saw that he had to fight with and kill his close relatives, friends, teachers, etc. including the grandfather Bhīșma in whose lap he played and grew up, to win this war. He began to feel a sensation of dizziness, his mouth became dry and his body was trembling. He made Śrī Kṛșṇa aware of the state of his body and mind. He also stated that his bow was about to slip away from his hands. Arjuna  argued, that the kingdom so acquired after killing these people was of no value. After saying this, he sat aside and took off his weapons  from his body.  At this juncture, Bhagavān  Śrī Kṛșṇa persuaded him to fight it bravely through the discourse that is known worldwide as Gītā.

Śrī Kṛșṇa had a clear vision of the Dharma(duty) for a Kșatrīya and that was to wipe out anybody who propagated injustice and such an objective couldn’t be achieved without a war in that situation. At this point of time, Arjun had fallen into a dilemma. The renouncement that Arjun was now talking about was not the true manner to renounce the world. Śrī Kṛșṇa jolted Arjun by stating, “Hey Arjuna! At the very nick of time to fight the war, what kind of an illusion has struck you? Your present dilemma is the thing for non-Āryas. This will spoil your name and future happiness. This wave of fear doesn’t suit you at all. You must get rid of this demoralizing feeling in your heart and must stand up to fight the war.”[8] When Arjuna inquired, how could he kill his own friends and relatives then Śrī Kṛșṇa conveyed to him the gist of the Vedas, Upanishads and the books of Vedic philosophy. Listening to the sermon, he recovered and got ready for the war. This sermon is known as Gita.

Śrī Kșa Diplomacy in Mahā-Bhārata War

Once the Mahā-Bhārata (the Great Indian) war started, Bhīșma was the commander-in-chief for the Kaurava army. For the first 9 days, he led his army. Arjuna thought that the war cannot be won as long as Bhīșma is alive. Then one night he himself walked into Bhīșma’s pavilion to know the secret of his death. Then Bhīșma revealed that I had sworn that I would never attack a woman or a eunuch who appeared to be a woman. Next day Śrī Kṛșṇa brought forward the eunuch named Śikhaṇḍī to battle with Bhīșma and at an opportune moment Arjuna made the final blow and Bhīșma fell on the ground. He devised a similar trick to succeed in killing Jayadratha by utilizing the moments that the sun was in eclipse as if the night had fallen.

Same sort of clever tactics was utilized to kill Karṇa. His chariot’s wheel got jammed in the battleground. To set the things right, he came down on the field after removing his weapons. Then Kṛșṇa told Arjuna to act. Seeing Arjuna ready to shoot arrow at him, Karṇa reminded him that it is not the code of conduct for braves to fight with one who has no weapon in his hands. Then Śrī Kṛșṇa reminded Karṇa that insulting Draupadī in the royal assembly was according to what codes? All codes were conveniently forgotten when you all encircled Abhimanyu to kill him. Why did you forget Dharma on those occasions? Saying this, he gave the command to Arjuna to kill Karṇa at once and Arjuna did the same.

It can be seen that the victory that Pāṇḍavas obtained was largely due to Śrī Kṛșṇa. This is the high point of his magnanimous personality. He got all the autocratic and atrocious kings killed to bring relief and peace for the people and their respective kingdoms were awarded to the suitable relative of the kings killed. The entire nation was brought under one united entity. His discourse in Gītā speaks well about his profound scholarship. He was a great Yogī and a highly learned person. He was a reservoir of velour to the extent that Bhīșma opined that he was the most suitable person to be declared the Most Respectable person at the ceremony of the Rājasūya-Yajña. It is quite correct for Maharși Dayānanda to declare about this Great Hero that he did no act contrary to Dharma from his birth to death.

 Some Selected Gems from Gītā as Said by Śrī Kșa

As the body itself (very naturally) passes through childhood, youth and old age, one naturally obtains another body after leaving the present one. Therefore, a person with the right knowledge would not grive upon death of a loved one.[9]

As people put on new clothes after discarding the old ones, likewise the soul abandons the old body to acquire a new one.[10]

The soul cannot be pierced by a weapon, nor can it be burned by fire, nor can it become wet in water and nor can it be dried by wind.[11]

One who is born will definitely die and one who is dead will definitely take rebirth. So,it is not justified to grief over  death of a loved one[12]

To perform duty is within our purview but not the reward. Hence, don’t consider yourself as the dispenser of the rewards and nor should you renounce your duties.[13] That is to say, the rewards of the karma will definitely follow but nobody can say when, where and how. We cannot know this. If we presume fruits of our karma or actions, then not meeting our expectations of the rewards may be painful for us. We don’t have any control on the fruits of our actions. Not seeing the immediate reward shouldn’t make us disinterested in karma. If we renounce karma then we will not be able to obtain rewards at all. This is the message of Gītā that we are free to perform karma and just because we have no say in the rewards, we shouldn’t give up performing karma.

Undue attachment should be abandoned and one should evaluate one’s duties with a feeling of detachment, because true Yoga is basically a uniformly calm state of mind.[14] 

After performing high order karma called Yajña (disinterested karma for the benefit of others when one has no interest in reward for self) one should enjoy what one is left with. Great and saintly people who practice these ethics in life, do not commit any sins. But, those who care for themselves only accumulate mostly sins.[15]

Food grains give rise to the birth of different species. They are grown by the rains. The rains occur due to Yajña and Yajña are based on karma.[16]

Typical people follow the learned people. The learned people treat certain things authoritative and the masses follow them. In other words, the folks generally follow what the great souls, saints and leaders do.[17]

One who is restrained in food habits and other factors related to the life style and whose efforts in daily life are well restrained and balanced, besides being regular in sleep and its schedule than on is definitely going to see pain and suffering disappear from his/her life.[18]

There are four kinds of people who worship God: 1. who are in distress, 2. who desire true knowledge, 3. who are interested in material wealth, and 4. the learned people.[19]

Lust, anger and greed are the primary causes for pain and misery. Therefore, we should keep them away.[20]

One should become an ascetic bodily by engaging in worshipping God, respect for learned and teachers, purity, innocence, celibacy, and not to hurt anybody.[21]

To become an ascetic by speech, one shouldn’t engage in disturbing anybody’s mind but take recourse to speech that is truthful, sweet and useful to others. Furthermore, they should read and contemplate the teachings of the Vedas and other allied literature.[22]

To become an ascetic by mind, one should develop cheerfulness, serenity, quiet, introspection, control of sense organs and purity of mind.[23]

With the above three-fold penance duly performed in a detached manner with steadfast resolve and without any malice, one is likely to soon progress towards Sāttvika Tapa (Penance of the highest order).[24]

One who does the above three-fold penance but with an intention to be respected in the society, gains proficiency in Rājasika Tapa (Penance of the Middle Order).[25] One who does the same to eventually cause pain and suffering to others begins to gather Tāmasika Tapa (Penance of the Low Order).[26]

Charity out of genuine Dharma (duty) after duly considering the space, time and the suitability of the recipient is Sāttvika Daan (Charity of the High Order) when one doesn’t expect absolutely anything in return.[27]

Charity with an intention to obtain a later benefit in some form or another is Rājasika Daan (Charity of the Middle Order).[28]

Charity at an inappropriate space-time and to a non-deserving with disrespect and disobedience is Tāmasika Daan (Charity of Low Order).[29]

Even a Yajña performed in a manner contrary to the scriptures, without distributing sweets to those present, without reciting the Vedic hymns, without giving honorarium to the priests, and conducted without devotion is of Tāmasika (Low) order.[30]

Everybody should attempt to raise his or her stature by way of spiritual upliftment and should never let the idea of inferiority cause spiritual decline. Our spirit is the friend of the self and a spirit-less idea is an enemy of the self.[31] 

References :

[1]        सत्यार्थ प्रकाश एकादश समुल्लास, पृ. 320   Satyārtha prakāśa ekādaśa samullāsa, (pṛ-320)

[2] (a)   सत्यार्थ प्रकाश एकादश समुल्लास, पृ. 320   Satyārtha prakāśa ekādaśa samullāsa, (pṛ-320)

(b) Purāṇas have written several derogatory, false and defamatory stories about Śrī Kșa. Some of these writings have been quoted. These quotes are in Vișṇu Purāṇa part 5, chapter 13, Śrīmad Bhāgavata Mahā Purāṇa skandha 10, chapter 29 Śloka 45-46, skandha 10, chapter 33 Śloka 14, 17-21, Śiva purāṇa dharma Saṁhitā chapter 10, Brahama-vaivarta Purāṇa Kșa janma khaṇḍa chapter 3 Śloka 58-62, chapter 15, chapter 72 and Kșa.  janma khaṇḍa uttarārdha chapter 115 Śloka 61-62 etc. These descriptions are so filthy, shameful and sensual in nature. Śrī Kṛșṇa has been repeated labeled as low class and highly sexually oriented.

[3]        ब्रह्मचर्यं महद् घोरं तीर्त्वा द्वादशवार्षिकम्। हिमवत्पार्श्वमास्थाय यो मया तपसार्जितः।।

समानव्रतचारिण्यां रुक्मिण्यां योऽन्वजायत। सनत्कुमारस्तेजस्वी प्रद्युम्नो नाम मे सुतः।। (महाभारत सौप्तिकपर्व 12/30-31)

Brahmacaryaṁ mahad ghoraṁ tīrtvā dvādaśa-vārṣikam. Himavat-pārśvam-āsthāya yo mayā tapasārjitaḥ.

Samāna-vrata-cāriṇyāṁ rukmiṇyāṁ yo’ nvajāyata. Sanat-kumāras-tejasvī pradyumno nāma me sutaḥ. (Mahābhārata Sauptikaparva 12/30-31)

[4]        See the following references of Purāṇas:

(a) Śrī Kṛșṇa entered the pure white sandy banks of river Yamunā. The surroundings were full of fragrance and cool breeze was blowing. there Śrī Kṛșṇa became sexually involved the shepherd girls. The acts involved caressing them, touching and massaging their breasts, hugging them, massaging their thighs, scratching them and sexually arousing them and then having sex with them. (Bhāgavata purāṇa 10.29.45-46)

नद्याः पुलिनमाविश्य गोपीभिर्हिमवालुकम्। रेमे तत्तरलानन्दकुमुदामोदवायुना।।

Nadyāḥ pulinam-āviśya gopībhir-himavālukam. Reme tat-taralānanda-kumudāmoda-vāyunā.

बाहुप्रसार परिरम्भ-करालकोरु नीवी-स्तनालम्भन-नर्म-नखाग्र-पातैः। क्ष्वेल्यावलोक-हसितैर्व्रज-सुन्दरीणामुत्तम्भयन् रतिपतिं रमयाञ्चकार।।

Bāhu-prasāra-parirambha-karāla-koru nīvī-stanālambhana-narm-anakhāgra-pātaiḥ. Kṣvelyāvaloka-hasitair-vraja- sundarīṇām-uttambhayan  ratipatiṁ ramayāñcakāra.

(b) One of the shepherd girls was dancing. When she got very tired, she took the hands of Śrī Kṛșṇa (who was standing next to her) and put on her breasts. (Bhāgavata purāṇa 10.33.14)

नृत्यन्ती गायती काचित् कूजन्नूपुरमेखला। पार्श्वस्थाच्युतहस्ताब्जं श्रान्ताधात् स्तनयोः शिवम्।।

Nṛtyantī gāyatī kācit kūjan- nūpura-mekhalā. Pārśvasthācyuta hastābjaṁ śrānādhāt stanayoḥ śivam.

(c)  Kṛșṇa was a thief and master in people with bad character (Gopāla sahasra nāma śloka 137)

गोपाल: कामिनी-जारश्चोर-जार-शिखामणि। Gopālaḥ kāminī- jāraścora –jāra- śikhāmaṇi.

(d) Even parents, husbands or the brothers could not stop the shepherd girls from spending time at night and getting sexually involved with Śrī Kṛșṇa. (Vișṇu Purāṇa 5.13.58)

ता वार्यमाणाः पतिभिः पितृभिर्भ्रातृभिस्तथा। कृष्ण गोपाङ्गना रात्रौ रमयन्ति रतिप्रियाः।।

Tā vāryamāṇāḥ patibhiḥ pitṛbhir bhrātṛbhis tathā. Kṛṣṇa gopāṅganā rātrau ramayanti ratipriyāḥ.

(e)   Oh Kṛșṇa, you are the favorite of the Brija, please get away from my sight, why are you hurting me, you are very sexy, I have understood you well by now. You are highly capable of sexual intercourse just like humans and he should be thrown out of Goloka and be on earth. (Brahma vaivarta purāṇa Kṛșṇa janma khaṇḍa 3.58-62)

हे कृष्ण बृजकांत! गच्छ मत्पुरतो हरे। कथं दुनोषि मां लोलं रति-चोर:-अति-लम्पट:।।

मयाज्ञातोऽसि भद्र ते गच्छ-गच्छ ममाश्रमात्। शाश्वते मनुष्याणां च व्यवहारस्य लम्पट:। लभतां मानुषीं यौनिं गौलोकाद् व्रज भारतम्।।

हे सुशीले, हे शशिकले, हे पद्मावति माधवी।  निवार्य ताच्चधूर्तो च किमस्यात्र प्रयोजनम्।।

He kṛṣṇa bṛjakānta! gaccha matpurato hare. Kathaṁ dunoṣi māṁ lolaṁ rati cora ati lampaṭaḥ.

Mayā-jñāto’si bhadra te gaccha-gaccha mamāśramāt/ Śāśvate manuṣyāṇāṁ ca vyavahārasya lampataḥ.

Labhatāṁ mānuṣīṁ yauniṁ gaulokād vraja bhāratam. He suśīle, he śaśikale, he padmāvati mādhavī.

Nivārya tācca dhūrto ca kim asyātra prayojanam.

वृषभानोश्च वैश्यस्य सा च कन्या बभूव ह। सार्धं रायणवैश्येन तत्सम्बन्धं चकार सः।।

कृष्णमातुर्यशोदाया रायणस्तत्सहोदरः। गोलोके गोपकृष्णांशः सम्बन्धात् कृष्णमातुलः।।

Vṛṣbhānośca vaiśyasya sā ca kanyā babhūva ha. Sārdhaṁ rāyaṇavaiśyen tatsambandhaṁ chakār saḥ.

Kṛṣṇa-mātur-yaśodāyā rāyaṇas-tat-sahodaraḥ. Goloke gopa-kṛṣṇāṁśaḥ sambandhāt kṛṣṇa-mātulaḥ.

  (f)   Who was Rādhā? It is a common practice among Hindus to associate Śrī Kṛșṇa with Rādhā in a soul mate, power or lover way. Some people greet each other saying radhey -radhey ro radhey-Kșa

According to Brahma-vaivarta Purāṇa, Prakṛti Khaṇḍa chapter 49, Śloka 35, 37 and 40, Radha was married to Rāyana, who was brother of Yaśodā. Since it was Yaśodā who brought up Śrī Kṛșṇa, so that Rādhā became the maami or aunt of Śrī Kṛșṇa. Another writing suggests that Rayan was adopted son of Śrī Kṛșṇa and so Rādhā became the daughter in law of Śrī Kṛșṇa. Some other reference suggested that Rādhā was adopted sister of Śrī Kṛșṇa . [Brahma Vaivarta purāṇa Kalyāṇa Monthly Prakṛti Khaṇḍa, Page 211, Brahma Vaivarta Purāṇa Pratkṛti Khaṇḍa Chapter-2, Śloka 25-26 and Chapter 48, Śloka 29]

[5]        वेदवेदाङ्गविज्ञानं बलं चाप्यधिकं तथा। नृणां लोके हि कोऽन्योस्ति विशिष्टः केशवादृते।।

दानं दाक्ष्यं श्रुतं शौर्यं ह्री कीर्तिर्बुद्धिरुत्तमा। सन्नतिः श्रीर्धृतिस्तुष्टिः पुष्टिश्च नियताच्युते।। (महाभारत सभापर्व, 38.19-20)

Veda-vedāṅga-vijñānaṁ balaṁ cāpyadhikaṁ tathā. Nṛṇāṁ loke hi ko’ nyosti viśiṣtaḥ keśavād-ṛte.

Dānaṁ dākṣyaṁ śrutaṁ śauryaṁ hrī kīrtir-buddhir-uttamā. Sannatiḥ śrīr-dhṛtis-tuṣtiḥ puṣtiśca niyatācyute. (Mahābhārata Sabhāparva 38.19-20)

[6]        सम्प्रीति-भोज्यान्यन्नानि आपद्भोज्यानि वा पुनः। न च सम्प्रीयसे राजन् न चैवापद्गता वयम्।। (महाभारत, उद्योगपर्व 91.25)

Samprīti-bhojyānyannāni āpad-bhojyāni vā punaḥ. Na ca samprīyase rājan na caivāpad-gatā vayam. (Mahābhārata udyogaparva 91.25)

[7]        यावद्धि तीक्ष्णया सूच्या विध्येदग्रेण केशव। तावदप्यपरित्याज्यं भूमेर्नः पाण्डवान् प्रति। (महाभारत, उद्योगपर्व, 127.25)

Yāvaddhi tīkṣṇayā sūcyā vidhyed agreṇa keśava. Tāvad apyaparityājyaṁ bhūmer-naḥ pāṇḍavān prati. (Mahābhārata Udyogaparva 127-25)

[8]        कुतस्त्वा कश्मलमिदं विषमे समुपस्थितम्। अनार्य जुष्टमस्वर्ग्यमकीर्तिकरमर्जुन।। (गीता 2.2)

क्लैव्यं मा स्म गमः पार्थ नैतत्त्वयुपपद्यते। क्षुद्रं हृदयदौर्बल्यं त्यक्त्वोत्तिष्ठ परंतप।। (गीता 2.3)

Kutastvā kaśmalam-idaṁ viṣame samupasthitam. Anārya juṣṭam-asvargyam-akīrtikaram-arjuna. (Gītā 2.2)

Klaivyaṁ mā sma gamaḥ pārtha naitat-tvayupa-padyate. Kṣudraṁ hṛdaya-daurbalyaṁ tyaktvottiṣṭh paraṁtapa. (Gītā 2.3)

[9]        देहिनोऽस्मिन् यथा देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा। तथा देहान्तर प्राप्तिर्धीरस्तत्र न मुह्यति।। 2.13

Dehino’smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā. Tathā dehāntara prāptir-dhīras-tatra na muhyati. (Gītā 2.13)

[10]       वासांसि जीर्णानि यथा विहाय, नवानि गृह्णाति नरोऽपराणि। तथा शरीराणि विहाय जिर्णान्य- न्यानि संयाति नवानि देही।। 2.22

Vāsānsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya, Navāni gṛhṇāti naro’parāṇi.

Tathā śarīrāṇi vihāya jirṇānyanyāni saṁyāti navāni dehī. (Gītā 2.22)

[11]       नैनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि नैनं दहति पावकः। न चैनं क्लेदयन्त्यापो न शोषयति मारुतः।। 2.23

Nainaṁ chindanti śastrāṇi nainaṁ dahati pāvakaḥ. Na cainaṁ kledayantyāpo na śoṣayati mārutaḥ. (Gītā 2.23)

[12]       जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर्ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च। तस्मादपरिहार्येऽर्थे न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि।। 2.27

Jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyur-dhruvaṁ janma mṛtasya ca. Tasmād-aparihārye’rthe na tvaṁ śocitum-arhasi. (Gītā 2.27)

[13]       कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन। मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा ते संगोऽस्त्वकर्मणि।। 2.47

Karmaṇyevādhikārste mā phaleṣu kadācana. Mā karmaphalaheturbhūrmā te saṅgo’stvakarmaṇi. (Gītā 2.47)

[14]       योगस्थः कुरु कर्माणि संगं त्यक्त्वा धनञ्जय। सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योः समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते।। 2.48

Yogasthaḥ kuru karmāṇi saṅgaṁ tyaktvā dhanañjaya. Siddhyasiddhyoḥ samo bhūtvā samatvaṁ yoga ucyate. (Gītā 2.48)

[15]       यज्ञशिष्टाशिनः सन्तो मुच्यन्ते सर्वकिल्विषैः। भुञ्जते ते त्वघं पापा ये पचन्त्यात्मकारणात्।। 3.13

Yajña-śiṣtāśinaḥ santo mucyante sarva-kilviṣaiḥ. Bhuñjate te tvaghaṁ pāpā ye pacantyātma-kāraṇāt. (Gītā 3.13)

[16]       अन्नाद् भवन्ति भूतानि पर्जन्यादन्न सम्भवः। यज्ञाद् भवन्ति पर्जन्यो यज्ञः कर्म समुद्भवः।। 3.14

Annād bhavanti bhūtāni parjanyād-anna sambhavaḥ. Yajñād bhavanti parjanyo yajñaḥ karma samudbhavaḥ. (Gītā 3.14)

[17]       यद् यदाचरति श्रेष्ठस्तत्तदेवेतरो जनः। स यत्प्रमाणं कुरुते लोकस्तदनुवर्तते।। 3.21

Yad yad ācarati śreṣṭhas tat tad-evetaro janaḥ. Sa yat pramāṇaṁ kurute lokas tad anuvartate. (Gītā 3.21)

[18]       युक्ताहारविहारस्य युक्तचेष्टस्य कर्मसु। युक्तस्वप्नावबोधस्य योगो भवति दुःखहा।। 6.17

Yuktāhāra vihārasya yukta ceṣtasya karmsu. Yukta svapnāva-bodhasya yogo bhavati duḥkhahā. (Gītā 6.17)

[19]       चतुर्विधा भजन्ते मां जनाः सुकृतिनोऽर्जुन। आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी ज्ञानी च भरतर्षभ।। 7.16

Caturvidhā bhajante māṁ janāḥ sukṛtino’rjuna. Ārto jijñāsur arthārthī jñānī ca bharatarṣabha. (Gītā 7.16)

[20]       त्रिविधं नरकस्येदं द्वारं नाशनमात्मनः। कामः क्रोधस्तथा लोभस्तस्मादेतत्त्रयं त्यजेत्।। 16.21

Trividham narakasyedam dvāram nāśanamātmanaḥ. Kāmaḥ krodhas tathā lobhas tasmād etat trayaṁ tyajet. (Gītā 16.21)

[21]       देवद्विजगुरुप्राज्ञपूजनं शौचमार्जवम्। ब्रह्मचर्यमहिंसा च शारीरं तप उच्यते।। 17.14

Deva-dvija-guru-prājña-pūjanaṁ śaucam-ārjavam. Brahmacaryam-ahiṁsā ca śārīraṁ tapa ucyate. (Gītā 17.14)

[22]       अनुद्वेगकरं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रियहितं च यत्। स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनं चैव वाङ्मयं तप उच्यते।। 17.15

Anud-vega-karaṁ vākyaṁ satyaṁ priyahitaṁ ca yat. Svādhyāyābhyasanaṁ caiva vāṇmayaṁ tapa ucyate. (Gītā 17.15)

[23]       मनः प्रसादः सौम्यत्वं मौनमात्मविनिग्रहः। भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत् तपो मानसमुच्यते।। 17.16

Manaḥ prasādaḥ  saumyatvaṁ maunam-ātma-vinigrahaḥ. Bhāva-saṁśudhir-ityetat tapo mānasam-ucyate. (Gītā 17.16)

[24]       श्रद्धया परया तप्तं तपस्तत् त्रिविधं नरैः। अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्युक्तैः सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते।। 17.17

Śradhayā parayā taptaṁ tapastat trividhaṁ naraiḥ. Aphalākāṇkṣibhir yuktaiḥ sāttvikaṁ paricakṣate. (Gītā 17.17)

[25]       सत्कारमान-पूजार्थं तपो दम्भेन चैव यत्। क्रियते तदिह प्रोक्तं राजसं चलमध्रुवम्।। 17.18

Satkāra-māna pūjārthaṁ tapo dambhena caiva yat. Kriyate tadiha proktaṁ rājasaṁ calam-adhruvam. (Gītā 17.18)

[26]       मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत् पीडया क्रियते तपः।  परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा तत्तामसमुदाहृतम्।। 17.19

Mūḍha-grāheṇātmano yat pīḍayā kriyate tapaḥ. Parasyotsāda-nārthaṁ vā tat tāmasam-udāhṛtam. (Gītā 17.19)

[27]       दातव्यमिति यद्दानं दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे। देशे काले च पात्रे च तद्दानं सात्विकं स्मृतम्।। 17.20

Dātavyam iti yad dānaṁ dīyate’nupa-kāriṇe. Deśe kāle ca pātre ca tad dānaṁ sātvikaṁ smṛtaṁ. (Gītā 17.20)

[28]       यत्तु प्रत्युपकारार्थं फलमुद्दिश्य वा पुनः। दीयते च परिक्लिष्टं तद्दानं राजसं स्मृतम्।। 17.21

Yattu pratyupa-kārārthaṁ phalam-uddiśya vā punaḥ. Dīyate ca parikliṣṭaṁ taddānaṁ rājasaṁ smṛtam. (Gītā 17.21)

[29]       अदेशकाले यद्दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते। असत्कृतमवज्ञातं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम्।। 17.22

Adeśa-kāle yad dānam-apātrebhyaś-ca dīyate. Asatkṛtam-avajñātaṁ tat tāmasam-udāhṛtam. (Gītā 17.22)

[30]       विधिहीनमसृष्टान्नं मन्त्रहीनमदक्षिणम्। श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते।। 17.13

Vidhi-hīnam-asṛṣtānnaṁ mantṛa-hīnam-adakṣiṇam. Śraddhā-virahitaṁ yajñaṁ tāmasaṁ paricakṣate. (Gītā 17.13)

[31]       उद्धरेदात्मनात्मानं नात्मानमवसादयेत्। आत्मैव ह्यात्मनो बन्धुरात्मैव रिपुरात्मनः।। 6.5

Uddhared ātmanātmānaṁ nātmānam avasādayet. Ātmaiva hyātmano bandhur ātmaiva ripur ātmanaḥ. (Gītā 6.5)

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