Dharma

  1. एक एव सुहृद्धर्मो निधनेऽप्यनुयाति यः। शरीरेण समं नाशं सर्वमन्यद्धि गच्छति।।    (मनुस्मृति- 8.17)

Eka Eva suhṛddharmo nidhane’pyanuyāti yaḥ. Śarīreṇa samaṁ nāśaṁ sarvam anyaddhi gacchati.  (Manusmṛti- 8.17)

Dharma is the real friend that accompanies us even after death. Rest dies out with the body.

 

  1. को हि जानाति कस्याद्य मृत्युलोको भविष्यति। युवैव धर्मशीलः स्यादनित्यं खलु जीवितम्।।  (महाभारत- शान्तिपर्व- 175)

Ko hi jānāti kasyādya Mṛtyuloko bhaviṣyati. Yuvaiva dharma-śīlaḥ syād-anityaṁ khalu jīvitam. (Mahābhārata- śāntiparva- 175)

Who knows who will die today? Therefore, one should become a righteous in youth itself because there is uncertainty about death.

 

  1. धर्म एव हतो हन्ति धर्मो रक्षति रक्षितः। तस्माद्धर्मो न हन्तव्यो मा नो धर्मो हतोऽवधीत्।।  (मनुस्मृति -8.15)

Dharma eva hato hanti dharmo rakṣati rakṣitaḥ. Tasmād dharmo na hantavyo mā no dharmo hato’vadhit.   (Manusmṛti -8.15)

Once Dharma is killed then the killer gets killed too. Once Dharma  is protected then it protects the protector as well. So, one shouldn’t’

kill Dharma lest the Dharma that has been killed, kills us too.

  Note:  Dharma above is not a sectarian religion but it is universally  applicable righteousness. One who disowns his duties is bound to suffer.

 

  1. नाधर्मश्चरितो लोके सद्यः फलति गौरिव। शनैरावर्तमानस्तु कर्त्तुर् मूलानि कृन्तति।।  (मनुस्मृति- 4.172)

Nādharmaś-carito loke sadyaḥ phalati gauriva. Śanair-āvarta-mānastu karttur-mūlāni kṛntati.  (Manusmṛti -4.172)

The anti-Dharma doesn’t produce its reward immediately as it happens with a cow that delivers a calf after the due gestation period. But, it slowly leaves its mark and cuts the very root of the anti-Dharmic person.

 

  1. अधर्मेणैधते तावत्ततो भद्राणि पश्यति। ततः सपत्नाञ्जयति समूलस्तु विनश्यति।।   (मनुस्मृति- 4.174)

Adharmeṇaidhate tāvat-tato bhadrāṇi paśyati. Tataḥ sapatnāñjayati samūlastu vinaśyati.  (Manusmṛti 4.174)

It appears that the performer of anti-Dharma flourishes in the beginning and even conquers his enemies for some time. But, eventually, he is wiped out thoroughly.

 

  1. श्रूयतां धर्मसर्वस्वं श्रूत्वा चैवावधार्यताम्। आत्मनः प्रतिकूलानि परेषां न समाचरेत्।।

Śrūyatām dharmasarvasvam śrūtvā caivāvadhāryatām. Ātmanaḥ pratikūlāni pareśām na samācaret.

Listen to the essence of Dharma and follow it in true spirit. One shouldn’t commit at all what one doesn’t desire from others.

 

  1. धारणाद्धर्ममित्याहुर्धर्मो धारयते प्रजाः। यत्स्याद्धारण-संयुक्तं स धर्म इति निश्चयः।।     (महाभारत कर्णपर्व- 69.56.58)

Dhāraṇād dharmam ityāhur dharmo dhārayate prajāḥ. Yat syād dhāraṇa-sanyuktaṁ sa dharma iti niścayaḥ. (Mahābhārata- karṇa parva- 69.56.58)

Dharma is called so because it can be carried by one and all. Dharma carries all living beings and keeps them alive. Hence, the deeds that give rise to creativity are truly Dharma.

 

Honesty

 

  1. सत्यं ब्रूयात् प्रियं ब्रूयान्न ब्रूयात् सत्यमप्रियम्। प्रियं च नानृतं ब्रूयादेष धर्मः सनातनः।। (मनुस्मृति- 4.138)

Satyaṁ brūyāt priyaṁ brūyānna brūyāt satyam apriyam. Priyaṁ ca nānṛtaṁ brūyād eṣa dharmaḥ sanātanaḥ.(Manusmṛti-4.138)

Everybody should speak truth and sweetly, too. The truth that is bitter and the sweet word that is untrue should be forsaken. This is the eternal Dharma.

 

Righteousness

 

  1. दुराचारो हि पुरुषो लोके भवति निन्दितः। दुःखभागी च सततं व्याधितोऽल्पायुरेव च।।   (मनुस्मृति -4.157)

Durācāro hi puruṣo loke bhavati ninditaḥ. Duḥkha-bhāgī ca satataṁ vyādhito’lpāyur eva ca. (Manusmṛti- 4.157)

Forgoing righteousness brings ill-fame and suffering. Furthermore, it brings diseases and a shorter life.

 

  1. वृत्तं यत्नेन संरक्षेद् वित्तमेति च याति च। अक्षीणो विततः क्षीणो वृत्ततस्तु हतो हतः।।  (महाभारत उद्योगपर्व 36.30)

Vṛttaṁ yatnena saṁrakṣed vittam eti ca yāti ca. Akṣiṇo vitataḥ kṣīṇo vṛttatastu hato hataḥ.    (Mahābhārata Udyogaparva 36.30)

Righteousness should be preserved diligently though wealth comes and goes.One who is not materially well off is not quite a poor but one who is void of righteous acts is truly a poor.

 

  1.  त्रिविधं नरकस्येदं द्वारं नाशनमात्मनः।   कामः क्रोधस्तथा लोभस्तस्मादेतत्त्रयं त्यजेत्।।  (गीता- 16.21)

Trividhaṁ narakasyedaṁ dvāraṁ nāśanam ātmanaḥ.  Kāmaḥ krodhas tathā lobhas tasmād etat trayaṁ tyajet.    (Gītā- 16.21)

Lust, anger and greed are the primary causes for pain and misery. Therefore, we should keep them away.

 

  1. अवश्यमेव लभते फलं पापस्य कर्मणः।   भर्तः पर्यागते काले कर्ता नास्त्यत्र संशयः।।   (वा.रा.-युद्धकाण्ड 111.25)

Avaśyameva labhate phalaṁ pāpasya Karmaṇaḥ.   Bhartaḥ paryāgate kāle kartā nāstyatra saṁśayaḥ.  (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddhakāṇḍa, 111.25)

There is no doubt that the doer of a vicious  act is rewarded with due punishment at a right time.

 

यादृशं कुरुते कर्म तादृशं फलमश्नुते।   (वा.रा.-उत्तरकाण्ड 15.25)

Yādṛśaṁ kurute karma tādṛśaṁ phalamaśnute. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa- Uttarakāṇḍa15.25)

One reaps what one sows

 

  1. अन्यो धनं प्रेतगतस्य भुङ्क्ते वयांसि चाग्निश्च शरीरधातून् ।  द्वाभ्यामयं सह गच्छत्यमुत्र पुन्येन पापेन च वेष्ट्यमानः ।।  (विदुरनीति-8.16)

Anyo dhanaṁ preta-gatasya bhuṅkte vayāṁsi cāgniśca śarīra-dhātūn ,  Dvābhām ayaṁ saha gacchatyamutra punyena pāpena ca veṣtyamānaḥ.  (Vduranīti- 8.16)

The wealth of the deceased is enjoyed by the others (who are his heirs), while the birds (if the body is left in the forest) and the fire feast on the elements of his body. Only his virtues and sins accompany him , when he travels to the other world.

 

  1.     उद्धरेदात्मनात्मानं नात्मानमवसादयेत्।  आत्मैव ह्यात्मनो बन्धुरात्मैव रिपुरात्मनः।।(गीता- 6.5)

Uddhared ātmanātmānaṁ nātmānam avasādayet.    Ātmaiva hyātmano bandhur ātmaiva ripur ātmanaḥ. (Gītā- 6.5)

Everybody should attempt to raise his or her stature by way of spiritual upliftment and should never let the idea of inferiority cause spiritual decline. Our spirit is the friend of the self and a spirit-less idea is an enemy of the self.

 

  1. अष्टौ गुणाः पुरुषं दीपयन्ति प्रज्ञा च कौल्यं च दमः श्रुतं च ।  प्राक्रमश्चाबहु-भाषिता च दानं यथाशक्ति कृतज्ञता च ।।   (विदुरनीति -3.51)

Aṣṭau guṇāḥ pruṣaṁ dīpaynti prajñā ca kaulyaṁ ca damaḥ śrutaṁ ca,   Prākramaś cābahu-bhāṣitā ca dānaṁ yathā-śakti kṛtajñatā ca.   (Viduranīti-3.51)

Wisdom, good lineage, self-control, acquaintance with the   Scriptures, powers, speaking little, charity to the extent of one’s

Power and gratefulness-these eight qualities shed a lustre upon  His possessor –bring fame for him.

 

  1. षड् दोषाः पुरुषेणेह हातव्या भूतिमिच्छता ।  निद्रा तन्द्रा भयं क्रोध आलस्यं दीर्घसूत्रता ।।  (विदुरनीति-1.76)

Ṣaḍ doṣāḥ puruṣeṇeha hātavyā bhūtim icchatā,  Nidrā tandrā bhayaṁ krodha ālasyaṁ dīrgha-sūtratā.  (Viduranīti-1.76)

These six faults should be avoided by a person who wishes   to attain prosperity and happiness in this world viz.,sleep, drowsiness,    fear, anger, laziness and procrastination.

 

rya and Its Characteristics 

  1. न वैरमुद्दीपयति प्रशान्तं न दर्पमारोहति नास्तमेति। न दुर्गतोऽस्मीति करोत्यकार्यं तमार्यशीलं परमाहुरार्यः।। (महाभारत उद्योगपर्व- 33.117)

Na vairam uddīpayati praśāntaṁ na darpam ārohati nāstameti. Na durgato’smīti karotyakāryaṁ tamāryaśīlaṁ param āhur āryaḥ. (Mahābhārata Udyogaparva- 33.117)

One who doesn’t permit the quietened enmity to flare up again, who doesn’t show false pride, who doesn’t let his worth lose, and who doesn’t take recourse to anti-Dharma even in hardships, such a person is truly an Ᾱrya.

 

  1. न स्वे सुखे वै कुरुते प्रहर्षं नान्यस्य दुःखे भवति प्रहृष्टः। दत्त्वा न पश्चात् कुरुतेऽनुतापं स कथ्यते सत्पुरुष-आर्यशीलः।।  (महाभारत उद्योगपर्व- 33.118)

Na sve sukhe vai kurute praharṣaṁ nānyasya duḥkhe bhavati prahṛṣṭaḥ. Dattvā na paścāt kurute-anutāpam sa kathyate satpuruṣa-ārya śīlaḥ.  (Mahābhārata Udyogaparva- 33.118)

One who doesn’t show undue happiness in good days and doesn’t cherish others’ difficult days and who doesn’t repent after a charity is a true Ᾱrya.

 

  1. कर्त्तव्यमाचरन् कार्यमकर्त्तव्यमनाचरन्। तिष्ठति प्रकृताचारे स वा आर्य इति स्मृतः।।

Karttavyam ācaran kāryam akarttavyam anācaran. Tiṣṭhati prakṛtācāre sa vā ārya iti smṛtaḥ.

One who performs all the good deeds and doesn’t perform bad deeds, and doesn’t forsake lofty character, is truly an Ᾱrya.

The word Ᾱrya refers to a noble person with high qualities, loftier deeds, and positive temperament. The entire Vedic literature refers to this word in a qualitative sense including the historical texts of Rāmāyaṇa, Mahābhārata, etc. Nowhere this word appears with racial connotation. Ram used to be called as ‘rya-Putra’ by his wife Sītā. The entire literature depicts women referred to as ‘rya-Putri’. It is synonym to the current practice of using the honorific of ‘Sir’ and so on. British people had vested interests in propagating the false idea that the word ‘Ᾱrya’ referred to a particular race of people so as to create a rift between the people of north and south, the former were labelled as ‘Ᾱrya’ while the latter were labelled as ‘Dravid. It is unfortunate that the modern historians continue to tow the same line and say that the ‘Ᾱrya’ came to India from foreign lands even though the ancient authentic literature doesn’t treat this word referring to a caste, race, religion or any other sectarian group of people.

 

  1. अहम् भूमिमाददामि आर्याय। (ऋग्वेद- 26.2)
  2. Aham bhūmim ādadāmi āryāya.  (Ṛgveda -4.26.2)

Rig-Ved (4.26.2) states that God has given the earth to Ᾱryas.

 

  1. इन्द्रं वर्धन्तो अप्तुरः कृणवन्तो विश्वमार्यम्। (ऋग्वेद- 63.5)

Indraṁ vardhanto apturaḥ kṛṇavanto viśvam āryam. (Ṛgveda -9.63.5)

Furthermore, it (9.63.5) implores every Ᾱrya to bring the humankind into the fold of rya-ness, i.e. to ennoble the humankind.

 

Sandhya – the Rewards of Recitation and meditation upon vedic prayer

 

  1. ऋषयो दीर्घ-सन्ध्यत्वाद् दीर्घमायुर् अवाप्नुवन्। प्रज्ञां यशश्च कीर्तिञ्च, ब्रह्मवर्चसमेव च।।   (मनुस्मृति- 4.94)

Ṛṣayo dīrgha-sandhyatvād, dīrgham āyur avāpnuvan. Prajñāṁ yaśaśca kirtiñca, brahma-varcasam-eva ca. (Manusmṛti- 4.94)

The seers in the past obtained long life, penetrating intellect, fame, and lustre through the continuous practice of Sandhya – Meditation.

 

Yajna

  1. नौर्ह वा एषा स्वर्ग्या यदग्निहोत्रम्।  (शतपथ ब्राह्मणम्- 3.3.15)

Naur ha vā eṣā svargyā yad agnihotram.  (Śatapatha brāhmaṇam- 2.3.3.15)

  Agnihotra is truly a boat that obtains us all kinds of pleasure and happiness.

 

  1. विधिहीनमसृष्टान्नं मन्त्रहीनमदक्षिणम्।   श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते।।   (गीता- 17.13

 

Vidhi-hīnam-asṛṣtānnaṁ mantṛa-hīnam-adakṣiṇam.  Śraddhā-virahitaṁ yajñaṁ tāmasaṁ paricakṣate.   (Gītā- 17.13)

Yajña performed in a manner contrary to the scriptures,  without distributing sweets to those present, without reciting

the Vedic hymns, without giving honorarium to the priests,  and conducted without devotion  is of Tāmasika (Low) order.

 

  1.  युक्ताहारविहारस्य युक्तचेष्टस्य कर्मसु।  युक्तस्वप्नावबोधस्य योगो भवति दुःखहा।।   (गीता 6.17)

Yuktāhāra vihārasya yukta ceṣtasya karmsu. Yukta svapnāva-bodhasya yogo bhavati duḥkhahā. (Gītā 6.17)

One who is restrained in food habits and other factors related to the life style and whose efforts in daily life are well restrained and balanced, besides being regular in sleep and its schedule than on is definitely going to see pain and suffering disappear from life.

 

Disciple – Student

 

  1. काकचेष्टा बको ध्यानी श्वाननिद्रस्तथैव च।अल्पाहारी गृह-त्यागी विद्यार्थी पञ्च-लक्षणम्।।

Kākaceṣṭā bako dhyānī śvāna nidras tathaiva ca. Alpāhārī gṛha- tyāgī vidyārthī pañca-lakṣaṇam.

A student should never give up and continue to make efforts as a crow does, concentrate as a crane does, sleep as a dog does, eat much less, and leave the comforts of home to study in company of his teacher.

 

  1. सुखार्थिनः कुतो विद्या कुतो विद्यार्थिनः सुखम्। सुखार्थी वा त्यजेद् विद्यां विद्यार्थी वा त्यजेत् सुखम्।। (महाभारत उद्योगपर्व- 40.6)

Sukhārthinaḥ kuto vidyā  kuto vidyārthinaḥ sukham. Sukhārthī vā tyajed vidyāṁ  vidyārthī vā tyajet sukham. (Mahābhārata Udyogaparva- 40.6)

One who desires pleasures cannot acquire true knowledge and while seeking true knowledge one must forsake pleasures. One who desires pleasure should forget about knowledge and one who desires knowledge should forsake pleasure.

 

Courtesy

 

  1. तृणानि भूमिरुदकं वाक्चतुर्थी च सुनृता। एतानि तु सतां गेहे नोच्छिद्यन्ते कदाचन।।  (महाभारत उद्योगपर्व -36.34)

Tṛṇāni bhūmir- udakaṁ vākcaturthi ca sunṛtā. Etāni tu satāṁ gehe nocchidyante kadācana. (Mahābhārata- Udyogaparva -36.34)

Gentle people are never without a sitting carpet made of natural grass, some space, water and sweet words. That is to say, they greet noble people heartily even if they lack material wealth.

 

  1. शुष्कवैरं विवादं च न कुर्यात् केनचित्सह।  (मनुस्मृति- 139)

Śuska-vairaṁ vivādaṁ ca na kuryāt kenacit-saha.  (Manusmṛti- 4.139)

Never to give rise to enmity for no valid reason and not to enter  into wasteful debate.

 

The Parents

 

  1. यं माता-पितरौ क्लेशं सहेते सम्भवे नृणाम्। न तस्य निष्कृतिः शक्या कर्तुं वर्ष-शतैरपि।।    (मनुस्मृति- 2.227)

Yaṁ Mātā-pitarau kleśaṁ sahete sambhave nṛṇām. Na tasya niṣkṛtiḥ śakyā kartuṁ varṣa-śatairapi.  (Manusmṛti- 2.2.27)

The parents go through extreme hardships in raising their children and that debt cannot be returned even in a hundred lives.

 

Family

 

  1. सन्तुष्टो भार्यया भर्त्ता भर्त्रा भार्या तथैव च। यस्मिन्नेव कुले नित्यं कल्याणं तत्र वै ध्रुवम्।।   (मनुस्मृति- 3.60)

Santuṣṭo bhāryayā bharttā bhartrā bhāryā tathaiva ca. Yasminneva kule nityaṁ kalyāṇaṁ tatra vai dhruvam.  (Manusmṛti- 3.60)

A family wherein the husband is contented with his wife and likewise the wife is contented with her husband, therein definitely lie peace and tranquillity.

 

Householder Phase of Life

 

  1. वनेऽपि दोषाः प्रभवन्ति रागीणां गृहेऽपि पञ्चेन्द्रियनिग्रहस्तपः। अकुत्सिते कर्मणि यः प्रवर्तते निवृत्तरागस्य गृहं तपो वनम्।।   (हितोपदेश- सन्धि)

Vane’pi doṣāḥ pra-bhavanti rāgīṇāṁ gṛhe’pi pañcendriya-nigrahas-tapaḥ.  Akutsite karmaṇi yaḥ pravartate  nivṛtta-rāgasya gṛhaṁ tapo vanam.  (Hitopadeśa- Sandhi)

Even though while living in forest, if one cannot forsake the sensual pleasures than such a person is inferior to one who may be living in a household but has attained austerity by way of restraining his sense organs. One who doesn’t commit deeds that are worth condemnation then such an asensual person has transformed his home as the forest of austerity.

 

Women-Place in Society and code of conduct

 

  1. यत्र नार्यस्तु पूज्यन्ते रमन्ते तत्र देवताः। यत्रैतास्तु न पूज्यन्ते सर्वास्तत्राफलाः क्रियाः।।  (मनुस्मृति- 3.56)

Yatra nāryastu pūjyante ramante tatra Devatāḥ. Yatraitāstu na pūjyante sarvās-tatrā’phalāḥ kṛiyāḥ. (Manusmṛti- 3.56)

Where women are well respected there live noble people. And, where they are not well respected there all efforts end up fruitless.

 

  1. स्त्रियां तु रोचमानायां सर्वं तद्रोचते कुलम्। तस्यां त्वरोचमानायां सर्वमेव न रोचते।।   (मनुस्मृति- 3.62)

Striyāṁ tu roca-mānāyāṁ sarvaṁ tad rocate kulam. Tasyāṁ tvaroca-mānāyāṁ sarvam-eva na rocate. (Manusmṛti -3.62)

If the woman of the house is cheerful then the entire home looks alike and if she is not cheerful then the home is depressed.

 

Guest

 

  1. अतिथिर्यस्य भग्नाशो गृहात्प्रति निवर्त्तते। स दत्त्वा दुष्कृतं तस्मै पुण्यमादाय गच्छति।।    (महाभारत- शान्तिपर्व 191.12)

Atithiryasya bhagnāśo gṛhātprati nivarttate. Sa dattvā duṣkṛtaṁ tasmai puṇyamādāya gacchati. (Mahābhārata Śāntiparva- 191.12)

If a guest leaves a home unsatisfied then as if he has left his misdeeds therein and has picked up the home-dwellers’ good deeds.

 

Renouncing of Greed

 

  1. लोभः प्रतिष्ठा पापस्य प्रसूतिर्लोभ एव च। द्वेषक्रोधादिजनको लोभः पापस्य कारणम्।  (भोजप्रबन्ध- 1)

Lobhaḥ pratiṣṭha pāpasya Prasūtirlobha eva ca, Dveṣa-krodhādi-janako Lobhaḥ pāpasya kāraṇam. (Bhojaprabandha- 1)

Sins dwell in greed and greed gives rise to more sins. Greed is the root cause of envy, anger, etc. Thus, greed is the original sin.

 

Friendship

 

  1. दुर्जनेन समं सख्यं प्रीतिं चापि न कारयेत्। उष्णो दहति चाङ्गारः शीतः कृष्णायते करम्।।   (हितोपदेश- मित्रलाभ 80)

Durjanena samaṁ sakhyaṁ prītiṁ cāpi na kārayet. Uṣṇo dahati cāṅgāraḥ, śītaḥ kṛṣṇāyate karam. (Hitopadeśa mitralābha- 80)

One shouldn’t develop friendship with wicked people. A burning coal will burn our hands and even if it’s cold yet it will blacken our hands.

 

Controlled Breathing or Pranayama

 

  1. दह्यन्ते ध्मायमानानां धातूनां हि यथा मलाः। तथेन्द्रियाणां दह्यन्ते दोषाः प्राणस्य निग्रहात्।।  (मनुस्मृति- 6.71)

 

Dahyante dhmāya-mānānāṁ dhātūnāṁ hi yathā malāḥ. Tathendriyāṇāṁ dahyante dośāḥ prāṇasya nigrahāt. (Manusmṛti- 6.71)

As the fire in a furnace burns out the impurities in gold, so does the deep controlled breathing that the impurities of our sense organs burn out.

 

Contentment

 

  1. न जातु कामः कामानामुपभोगेन शाम्यति। हविषा कृष्णवर्त्मेव भूयः एवाभिवर्द्धते।।    (महाभारत- आ. 75.50)

Na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānām upa bhogena śāmyati. haviṣā kṛṣṇa-vartmeva, bhūyaḥ evābhi-varddhate.  (Mahābhārata- Ā. 75.50 )

Desires never disappear if they are appeased but they keep growing. It is similar to a fire that keeps growing as more clarified butter is poured in.

 

Assembly or congregations

 

  1. न सा सभा यत्र न सन्ति वृद्धा वृद्धा न ते ये न वदन्ति धर्मम्। धर्मः स नो यत्र न सत्यमस्ति सत्यं न तद् यच्छलमभ्युपैति।।  (महाभारत- उद्योगपर्व -35.48)

Na sā sabhā yatra na santi vṛddhā vṛddhā na te ye na vadanti dharmam,

Dharmaḥ sa no yatra na satyam asti satyaṁ na tad yacchalam abhyupaiti. (Mahābhārata Udyogaparva- 35.48)

There is no assembly worth its name that doesn’t have old people. An old person is not quite matured who doesn’t talk Dharma. That Dharma is not quite Dharma that doesn’t have its basis in truth and that truth has no likeness to truth if that contains deceit.

 

  1. धर्मो विद्धस्त्वधर्मेण सभां यत्रोपतिष्ठते। शल्यं चास्य न कृन्तन्ति विद्धास्तत्र सभासदः।।  (मनुस्मृति- 8.12)

Dharmo viddhas-tvadharmeṇa sabhāṁ yatropa-tiṣṭhate. Śalyaṁ cāsya na kṛntanti viddhās-tatra sabhāsada. (Manusmṛti-8.12)

An assembly that ruptures Dharma by anti-Dharma or suppresses Dharma and the members present do not take out the thorn of anti-Dharma then the members will suffer from the anti-Dharma.

 

Enterprise and Fate

 

  1. पूर्वजन्मकृतं कर्म तद्दैवमिति कथ्यते। तस्मात् पुरुषकारेण यत्नः कुर्याद् अतन्द्रितः।।    (हितोपदेश -प्रस्तावना)

Pūrva-janma-kṛtaṁ karma tad-daivam-iti kathyate. Tasmāt puruṣakāreṇa yatnaḥ kuryād atandritaḥ.   (hitopadeśa prastāvanā)

Deeds performed in the previous lives turn into fate. Thus, one should refrain from laxity and become proactive.

 

  1. आलस्यं हि मनुष्याणां शरीरस्थो महान् रिपुः। नास्त्युद्यमसमो बन्धुर्यं कृत्वा नावसीदति।।    (नीतिशतक- 87)

Ālasyaṁ hi manuṣyāṇāṁ śrīrastho mahān ripuḥ. Nāstyudyama-samo bandhur-yaṁ kṛtvā nāvasīdati. (Nītiśataka- 87)

Laziness that resides in our body is our greatest enemy. There is no friend better than being enterprising that never brings pain and sorrow.

 

Greetings

 

  1. अभिवादन-शीलस्य नित्यं वृद्धोप-सेविनः। चत्वारि तस्य वर्द्धन्ते आयुर्विद्या यशो बलम्।।  (मनुस्मृति- 2.121)

Abhivādana-śilasya  nityaṁ vṛddhopa-sevinaḥ. Catvāri tasya varddhante, Āyurvidya yaśo balam. (Manusmṛti- 2.121)

One who greets elders properly benefits from long life span, knowledge, fame and strength.

 

  1. ऊर्ध्वं प्राणा ह्युत्क्रामन्ति यूनः स्थविर आयति ।  प्रत्युत्थानाभिवादाभ्यां पुनस्तान् प्रतिपद्यते  ।।   (विदुरनीति-6.1,मनुस्मृति-2,120)

Ūrdhvaṁ prāṇā hyutkrāmanti yūnaḥ sthavira āyati ,  Pratyutthānābhivādā-bhyṁ punstān pratipadyate .   (Viduranīti-6.1 Manusmṛti-2.120)

The breaths of a young man, when an aged and venerable person comes to his house as guest,sore aloft-they become nervous. By standing up in his honour and by touching his feet i.e. by paying his respects and saluting him, his breaths come to the normal state.

Surprise or mystry

 

  1. अहन्यहनि भूतानि गच्छन्तीह यमालयम। शेषाः स्थावरमिच्छन्ति किमाश्चर्यमतः परम्।।  (महाभारत- वनपर्व 313.116)

Ahanyahani bhūtāni  gacchantīha yamālayama. Śeṣāḥ sthāvaram iccanti  kim āścaryam ataḥ param.    (Mahābhārata- vanaparva 313.116)

The world witnesses living beings dying every day. But those alive continue to think as if they will live forever. What else can be a greater surprise?

 

Cheerful Person

 

  1. पञ्चमेऽहनि षष्ठे वा शाकं पचति स्वे गृहे।

अनृणी चाऽप्रवासी च  स वारिचर मोदते।।         (महाभारत- वनपर्व 313.115)

 

Pañcame’hani ṣaṣṭhe vā  śākaṁ pacati sve gṛhe.

Anṛṇī cā’pravāsī ca  sa vāricara modate.

(Mahābhārata- vanaparva 313.115)

Even if a person eats well on the fifth or sixth day but if he has no debt and is not forced to live away from home purposeless then he will be cheerful.

Sad person

 

  1.        ईर्ष्युर् घृणी न सन्तुष्टः क्रोधनो नित्यशङ्कितः। पर-भाग्योपजीवी च षडेते दुःख-भागिनः ।।  (विदुरनीति -1.88)

Īrṣyur ghṛṇī na santuṣṭaḥ krodhano nitya-śaṅkitaḥ, Para-bhāgyopa-jīvī ca ṣaḍete duḥkha-bhāginaḥ. (Viduranīti-1.88)

These six are always miserable, viz., the envious,  malicious,  discontented,  hot-tempered, ever suspicious and those  who depend upon others or depend upon the fortune of others.

 

 

Wealth

    

  1. दानं भोगो नाशस्तिस्रो गतयो भवन्ति वित्तस्य ।  यो न ददाति न भुङ्क्ते तस्य तृतीया गतिर्भवति ।।   (नीतिशतक-43)

Dānaṁ bhogo nāśas tisro gatayo bhavanti vittasya, Yo na dadāti na bhuṅkte tasya tṛtīyā gatir bhavati .  (Nītiśataka-43)

There are three ends to riches. i.e., giving away in charity, enjoyment (of pleasures) and destruction. The wealth of a man who neither spends it on charity nor on his/her enjoyments has only the third course ( i.e., it is destroyed)

 

Ego

 

  1. जरा रूपं हरति धैर्यमाश मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्यामसूया। कामो ह्रियं वृत्तमनार्य सेवा क्रोधः श्रियं सर्वमेवाभिमानः।। (विदुरनीति-5.8)

 

Jarā rūpaṁ harati dhairyam āśā mṛtyuḥ prāṇān dharmacaryām asūyā, Kāmo hṛiyaṁ vṛttam anārya sevā krodhaḥ śriyaṁ sarvam evābhimānaḥ.   (Viduranīti-5.8)

Old age snatches the beauty. Hope snatches patience. Death snatches breath. Lust snatches shyness. Company of a wicked person snatches away righteousness. Anger snatches wealth. Ego snatches everything.

 

Wisdom

 

  1. काव्य- शास्त्र- विनोदेन कालो गच्छति धीमताम्। व्यसनेन च मूर्खाणां निद्रया कलहेन वा।।    (हितोपदेश)

Kāvya śāstra vinodena, kālo gacchati dhīmatāma. Vyasanena ca mūrkhāṇāṁ, nidrayā kalahena vā.   (hitopadeśa) 

Intellectuals relish the poetry and prose while ignorant spends time in bad habits, sleep and quarrels.

 

  1. सहसा विदधीत न क्रियामविवेकः परमापदां पदम्। वृणुते हि विमृश्यकारिणं गुणलुब्धाः स्वयमेव सम्पदः।। (किरातार्जुनीयम्- 2.30)

Sahasā vidadhīta na kriyām avivekaḥ paramāpadāṁ padam. Vṛṇute hi vimṛśya-kāriṇaṁ guṇa-lubdhāḥ svayam eva sampadaḥ. (Kirātārjunīyam- 2.30)

One shouldn’t commit an act in undue haste without applying due thought lest  it brings harm. One who functions thoughtfully is showered with wealth that loves good qualities.

 

  1.     आकारश्छाद्यमानोऽपि न शक्यो विनिगूहितुम्। बलाद्धि विवृणोत्येव भावमन्तर्गतं नृणाम्।। (वा.रा. युद्ध. 17.63)

Ākāraś chādya māno’pi na śakyo vini-gūhitūm. Balāddhi vivṛṇotyeva bhāvam antargataṁ nṛṇām.   (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa-Yuddhakāṇḍa, 17.63)

Even if one intends to cover his inner feelings the face does reveal it. The outer features do reveal the inner emotions. There is another saying in Sanskrit-

 

  1.      आकारैरिङ्गितैर्गत्या चेष्टया भाषणेन च। नेत्रवक्त्रविकारैश्च लक्ष्यतेऽन्तर्गतं मनः।।

Ākārair iṅgitair gatyā ceṣtayā bhāṣaṇena ca. Netra vaktra vikāraiśca lakṣyate’ ntar gataṁ manaḥ.

The body language such as the gestures, the way one walks, the body movements, the speech, the features on the face reveal what transpires within the mind.

 

  1. गोघ्ने चैव सुरापे च चौरे भग्नव्रते तथा। निष्कृतिर्विहिता सद्भिः कृतघ्ने नास्ति निष्कृतिः।।  (वा.रा.-किष्कि. 34.12)

Goghne caiva surāpe ca caure bhagna-vrate tathā. Niṣkṛtir vihitā sadbhiḥ kṛtaghne nāsti niṣkṛtiḥ.  (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa- Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa, 34.12)

There may be a way to repent for a cow-killer, drunkard, thief and those who commit adultery but there is no way that an ungrateful person can progress.

 

  1. सुलभाः पुरुषा राजन् सततं प्रियवादिनः ।  अप्रियस्य च पथ्यस्य वक्ता श्रोता च दुर्लभः ।।   (विदुरनीति- 5.15

Sulabhā pruṣā rājan satataṁ priyavādinaḥ, Apriyasya ca pathyasya vaktā śrotā ca durlabhaḥ.  (Viduranīti-5.15)

O king! flatterers are abundant in this world, who can always speak  sweet and pleasant words, but the speaker, however is rare as also the listener, of words which are severe and disagreeable, but beneficial like medicine.

Gambling

  1. द्यूतमेतत् पुराकल्पे दृष्टं वैरकरं नृणाम् ।   तस्माद् द्यूतं न सेवेत हास्यार्थमपि बुद्धिमान् ।।    (विदुरनीति- 5.19)

Dyūtametat purākalpe driṣṭaṁ vairakaraṁ nṛṇām, Tasmād dyūtaṁ na seveta hāsyārthamapi buddhimān. (Viduranīti-5.19)

Even in olden days when hostility was minimum, then too, it has been that gambling provoked quarrels. Now-a-days when enmity has increased much, then what to say? Therefore, he who is wise should not restore to it (gambling) even in jest.